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商务英语 > 国际商务英语 > 2016年对外经济贸易大学翻译硕士考研国际商务英语1,考研真重点

2016年对外经济贸易大学翻译硕士考研国际商务英语1,考研真重点

商务英语
2016年对外经济贸易大学翻译硕士考研国际商务英语1,考研真重点 - 国际商务英语---考试要点 Equities:company stocks Ratify:make an ag
 

国际商务英语---考试要点 Equities:company stocks Ratify:make an agreement or a treaty officially valid by signing it Controversy:public argument about sth。Which many people disagree with Biennial:happening every alternate year Clout:influence Anti-dumping:one form of action which may be taken by a government to protect industries from unfair competition by which goods are sold at a price lower than in the country where they are manufactured Mandate:authority given to perform a duty Stillborn:(of a childdead at birth;(of an idea or a plannot developing further Contracting party:a country of film that signs a legal agreement Akin to:similar,related to Optimal:best or most favorable Terms of trade:the relation of export and import prices Preference:a practical advantage given to one over others Export earnings:money earned on the sales of goods to other countries Provisions:a formal or explicit statement of conditions demandedTariffs:customs duties imposed by a government on imports or exports Invisibles:trade in services Board:an official group of persons who direct or supervise some activities of a firm Permanent:lasting Counterpart:a person or thing that closely resembles another in position or function Forum:an outlet for discussing of matters of interest to a given group 外刊经贸知识选读 1。

The writer examines the development of China’s trade policy and the present state of the overseas economic links。 2。The pattern of China’s foreign trade has changed substantially since the founding of People’s Republic。 3。China exported agricultural products to the USSR and East European countries in return for manufactured goods and the capital equipment required for the country’s industrialization programme which placed emphasis on the development of heavy industry。 4。The Great Leap Forward of1958-1959initially produced gains in agricultural and industrial production,but subsequently resulted in serious economic imbalances。

5。Economic problems were exacerbated by three bad harvests with the result that national income and the volume of foreign trade contracted during1960-1962。 6。The withdrawal of Soviet economic and technical aid in the early-1960s caused trade to shift awa y from the USSR and its Comecon partners towards Japan and Western Europe。 7。The growth of foreign trade was disrupted again during the Cultural Revolution(1966-1976whenagricultural and industrial production fell sharply and transportation constraints became more serious。

8。Foreign trade,which has a major role in the Four Modernizations programme,has grown rapidly over the past few years。 9。The Sino-USA agreement on trade relations,which came into force in February1980,accords China most-favored nation treatment。 10。A commodity breakdown of China’s trade shows that fuels accounted for24percent of total exportsin1982…… 11。But the leading categories of imports in1982were food,which accounted for22percent of the total, light manufactured items with a share of20percent and machinery and transportation equipment with 17percent。

12。The US dollar value of Chinese exports increased at an average rate of almost18percent per annum between1978and1983…… 13。As a result,the visible trade surplus rose sharply from US$3。7billion in1981to US$4。4billion in 1982and US$3。7billion in1983。 14。Official recognition that foreign technology could play a major role in modernizing the Chinese economy had caused imports to rise by more than50percent in1978placing undue strain on the national economy。 15。China became a net gain exporter in1984。

16。The pattern of foreign trade growth was reserved in1984:the value of exports increased by10 percent,but imports jumped38percent with the result that the visible trade account was in deficit by US$1。1billion。 17。The strong increase in imports last year is attributed to buoyant economic activity as well as to thesuccess of the Government’s trade and foreign investment policies。 18。HK is China’s major export market accounting for approximately26percent of total exports in1983 (though much in re-exported to other destinations from there。

19。The EEC’s share of China’s exports has generally been around11-12percent over the past few years (the leading export markets within the European Community are Germany and the United Kingdom,……。 20。The most important suppliers among the industrial countries were Japan…… 21。The successful outcome to negotiations between Britain and China about the future of HK will strengthen the Sino-British relations and is expected to boost trade between the two countries。 22。The value of Chinese exports to Britain,which rose rapidly between1977and1980国际商务英语,declined in 1981-1982,but recovered strongly in1983…。

23。Chinese officials stress the importance of introducing advanced technology to domestic industry, but the need is for technology of varying degrees of sophistication,not necessarily for advanced technology as that term is understood in the West。 24。The size of the visible account of the balance of payments,but the size of the visible trade surplusduring1981-1983and a pronounced increase in earnings from tourism suggest that the current account has been in surplus over the past few years。 25。

Foreign exchange reserves have risen rapidly from approximately US$2。5billion at end-1980to US $17。0billion by October1984。 26。The balance of foreign exchange reserves is controlled by the Bank of China which specializes inforeign exchange business。 27。The authorities are willing to permit a run-down in the country’s international reserves over the next few years as a means of accelerating the introduction of foreign technology。 28。Foreign countries are encouraged to mount exhibitions of their goods and China itself has participated in a number of trade fairs and exhibitions held abroad。

29。Since the late1970s China has also adopted foreign trade practices longestablished in many other countries。30。Assembly manufacturing began in1978and particular forms of foreign trade are eligible for exemption from customs duties and taxation。 31。a series of policies designed to encourage foreign investment have accompanied these trade reforms。 32。The debt problems confronting a number of developing countries have reinforced China’s determination to introduce foreign technology by means of direct investment and concessionary finance rather than by raising substantial sums of money on the international capital markets。

33。Foreign investment is advantageous insofar as it facilitated the transfer of technology and skills and avoids creating an overhang of debt。 34。The authorities do not consider it appropriate to incur large amounts of external debt until a number of practical bottlenecks in the economy。 35。China’s access to substantial sums of money from the World Bank also reduces the need to borrow on commercial terms。 36。Figures compiled by the OECD and the Bank of International Settlements show borrowings fromwestern commercial banks of approximately US$2billion,but also show that the bulk of China’s foreign obligations consist of non-bank trade related credits which exceed US$4billion。

37。There appears considerable scope for foreign banks to undertake profitable business over the longer term。 1。The four special economic zones(SEZsin Guangdong and Fujian provinces,14coastal cities(all former treaty portsand Hainan island(19“open”areas in allhave specifically designed tax and other incentives for the foreign investor。 2。But every provincial capital is doing its best to attract foreign investment。 3。The following year,a tax law for joint ventures was promulgated。 4。Chinese leaders were growing impatient with the rate of progress in the showpiece SEZ-Shenzhen。

5。The State Council declared14cities along the entire coast plus Hainan island open to foreign investment,thus introducing a real element of competition into the country’s economic-development programme。 6。Even local factories are taking note of the vast potential sales in their own domestic market。 7。The central government’s determination to raise the level of industrial technology is clearly behind thedecision to open the14coastal cities。 8。The Bank of China has also said that new and more flexible loan policies will enable“thousands”of domestic enterprises to borrow foreign exchange to import equipment and repay in Renminbi。

9。The need to upgrade industrial equipment is great。 10。The combined industrial output of the15coastal areas is reportedly equal to a quarter of the nation’stotal。 11。But while the reasons for throwing19areas and cities open to foreign investment and technology transfer are clear,how the preferential systems will operate is not。 12。This is due largely to the intensity of competition among the19,coupled with the inexperience of most local authorities both in making decisions and in dealing with the outside world。

13。In the SEZs,which are being built almost from scratch,foreigners can invest in anything which thestate deems useful for the country,be it,for examples,production of goods for export or construction of private-housing estates。 14。These can be joint ventures,cooperative enterprises or wholly foreign-owned operations。 15。…。imports of capital and consumer goods(except cigarettes and liquorare exempted from customs duties,and a uniform15%income-tax rate is applied。 16。In the coastal cities,only factories where plant is being upgraded by foreign investment,enjoy the 15%tax rate。

17。The Economic and Technical Development Zone(ETDZoutside the coastal city centre will offer a uniform tax rate of15%for all the projects and waive the usual10%profit-remittance tax。 18。A joint venture outside the Zone is liable to the standard33%tax rate。 19。Tourist enterprises and any other service industry outside the Zone are not entitled to any special status。 20。The major source of confusion for foreign investors,however,is not the tax rate but who has the authority to approve projects。

21。China International Economic Consultants Inc。is the consultancy arm of the China International Trust and Investment Corp。 22。But if we start putting too many rules and regulations,they will get discourage。 23。…。it will be some time before the dust settles and local authorities and foreign investors can deal with one another in a systematic way。 24。Stock-taking of the open policy will come later this year when the National People’s Congress discusses the seventh five-year plan。 1。China has the most dynamic economy in the world today。

2。Its boom radiates from Guangdong,its richest province… 3。After a slowdown through1990,China’s economy bounced back mightily,reaching a recent peak of 13percent growth last year。 4。Some Western experts are predicting that China could become the world’s dominant economy early in21st century。 5。Membership in this club,which includes all the world’s leading economies,could provide a huge boost for a low-wage export economy。6。Last year China’s trade surplus surged,buoyed by exports of toys,textiles and consumer electronics。

7。Its trade surplus with the United States hit a record$18billion。 8。The U。S。Congress due to consider the renewal of China’s most-favored nation trade status in June… 9。After Japan,we’ll be first in line for retaliation。10。American has an increasingly large stake in good relations with China。 11。In1992American companies led a rush of foreign investors who signed more than$30billion worth of contracts in China。 12。McDonnell Douglas has built35MD-80series aircraft in Shanghai—and has contracted to build40 more。

13。Other state-affiliated companies,including CITIC and China Resources,Inc。,are branching out fromHK to establish overseas posts are varied as diamond-trading operations in Sri Lanka and brokerage services in New York。 14。Inflation has recently climbed back into double digits… 1。In1991,for the second year in a row,the economies of low-income and middleincome countries virtually stagnated,as measured by an increase in per capita gross domestic product(GDP。 2。Aggregate output for developing countries advanced by slightly less than2percent during1991 (similar to the weak performance of1990,implying an easing in per capita income of0。

1percent。 3。Excluding Central and Eastern Europe,growth in developing countries in1991was3。4percent, compared with3。8percent during the1980s。 4。An increase in China’s growth rate helped to sustain high rates of growth in the East Asia region。 5。International conditions for growth in developing countries deteriorated in1991。 6。The seven major industrial countries(the G-7experienced a significant slowdown in GDP growth… 7。The weakness in demand in the United States contributed to a drop of over6percent in non oil commodity prices…8。

Policy reforms in Latin America helped to moderate inflation and domestic demand;East Asian economics,supported by growth in export volume in the range of10percent and by robust domestic demand,continued to grow rapidly。 9。The index of non oil primary commodity prices in nominal dollar terms decline for the third consecutive year,and the index in real terms hit an all-time low。 10。There were no breakthroughs in the Uruguay Round of GATT negotiations on key elements,and the outcome remains in doubt。

11。Growth in the G-7countries decelerated from2。8percent in1990to1。9percent in1991。 12。The broad trend was the outcome of largely unexpected setbacks to recovery in the United States and the United Kingdom and the apparent onset of a slower period of economic growth in Japan and Germany。 13。A slump in construction of rental housing and the fading of a tax-cut-induced boom in auto sales also contributed to the weaker growth of Japan。 14。Unification further boosted investment,which then appeared to diminish,as expectations ofprofitability were dampened by higher wages and high short-term nominal and real interest rates。

15。Inflation as measured by the GDP deflator slackened in most of the G-7countries。 16。It continued to decelerate in North America and edged down in Japan, 17。Financial institutions in these two countries adopted more conservative lending policies,curtailing financing of high-risk projects… 18。These developments played some part in the general tightening of credit during1991…19。A notable development in1991was a narrowing of current-account imbalances of most major industrial countries… 20。The trade component of the deficit narrowed as lower inflation and earlier dollar depreciation improved competitiveness… 21。

A continuation of the surge of imports that followed unification,as well as the earlier appreciation of the deutsche mark,contributed to the swing。22。In Germany,the slope of the yield curve turned positive。 23。Because slowdown in industrial-country growth dampened demand for exports of both primary commodities and manufactures from developing countries,the volume of merchandise exports of developing countries declined by2percent。 24。The influence of the Gulf crisis,including the spike in oil prices and dislocations in the Middle East国际商务英语 考研, was widespread。

25。…the sharp compression of imports by the Soviet Union adversely affected its other trading partners。 26。…a pick-up in China helped sustain Asian activity。 27。The sharp acceleration of GDP growth in China,from4。5percent to over6percent,was supported by improvements in industrial output,higher levels of consumer spending,and significant gains in the export of manufactures。 28。Export volumes for the group of East Asian countries advanced at double-digit rates。 29。Economic weakness in some of the region’s traditional export markets has underlined the importance of market diversification…30。

The decline was partly caused by India’s reining in of its budget deficit and the short-term effects of the implementation of strong emergency stabilization measures… 31。The emergency measures included a serve compression of imports,tight credit policies and exchange-rate devaluation。 32。In Europe and Central Asia,GDP contracted by about7percent,as stabilization and reform programs, in several countries had not yet led to bottoming-out in their economies。 1。The Clinton Administration is drawing the first lines of a tougher U。

S。policy on trade… 2。The strongest signal came last week,when Mickey Kantor,the U。S。trade representative国际商务英语 考研,moved quickly to cite the12-nation European Community for“intolerable”discrimination against U。S。 companies seeking government contracts within the Community。 3。The administration will begin retaliating in six weeks if EC policies remain unchanged。 4。A willingness to impose sanction on major trading partners to reduce trade barriers abroad,with less patience for drawn-out negotiations。5。Administration officials see little risk that this more aggressive policy could escalate into full-fledged trade war that would shock the world’s fragile economies。

6。Tokyo appears more“results-oriented”than the Community,prompting hopes that bargains can be reached with Japan to ease frictions on a range of issues。 7。A pledge to Mexico and Canada to seek rapid congressional approval of the North American Free-trade Agreement as the highest trade priority。 8。Some representatives of U。S。business,seething over what they view as protectionist EC policies, praised Mr。Kantor’s action。 9。…if the dispute with European Community over government procurement is soon followed by casheswith Europe over steel… 10。

Anyone who thinks Europe and Japan will be bullied into meeting American deadlines and priorities isn’t awake to the changes that have occurred。2015 年 8 月 资料来源:育明考研考博官网

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